Category Archives: RSK

Blockchain: Links And Resources (179)

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Crypto YouTuber hacked out of $2 million during a livestream

Candidate Indistinguishability Obfuscation and Functional Encryption for all circuits

Satoshi Nakamoto is an Estonian scientist

Hunt for the world’s most wanted man reaches Estonia

Buyers of TOSS Tokens Will Have a Chance to Test the Ecosystem during Token Sale

3 Industries That Could Be Left in the Dust By Blockchain

Blockchain Start-Up To Help Public Own And Monetize Their Data

How Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Tech are Changing the Art World

Stay tuned!

Angel “Java” Lopez


Blockchain: Links And Resources (174)

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Rethinking Large-Scale Consensus


A finite monetary supply for Bitcoin
April fool

RSK Smart Contracts on Bitcoin Explained with Diego Gutierrez Zaldivar

5 Steps to Stress-Free Crypto Tax Accounting

Bitcoin Magazine’s Week in Review: Lightning and Sparks Fly

El criptoprode y otros avances con la tecnología del blockchain

IBM, Proxeus to Legally Register a Company in 3 Hours on the Blockchain

Stay tuned!

Angel “Java” Lopez

Scaling Ethereum/RSK: Multi Blockchains (2)

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In the previous post I described a primary blockchain (based on Ethereum RSK) that could connect with a secondary level blockchains, using special transactions. In this post, I describe the mechanism to make it happens. Usually, an Ethereum RSK has transactions and a parent block:

The new trick is to have SOME blocks with TWO parents, connecting TWO blockchains (the primary one and a secondary blockchain), and special transactions that affects the TWO blockchains:

So, we could have two blockchains with normal blocks, with some special blocks that allows the execution of interchain transactions:

The primary blockchain could have special blocks with MORE THAN ONE secondary blockchain. But the secondary blockchains only allow the special blocks that connect with the primary one:

The normal blocks are mined by miners/producers in each blockchain. But the new special blocks ARE MINED by miners that keep BOTH BLOCKCHAINS states of word. There are machines that verifies the primary blockchain, other machines that verifies a secondary blockchain, and so on. But SOME machines verifies TWO blockchains.

Suppose we have the blue blockchain (the primary blockchain) and the green blockchain (a secondary one). Then, there is an special account (the bridge blue-green account) to be used in the special transactions. That bridge account in the blue blockchain has initial 0 balance. The same bridge account in the green blockchain has a total balance of the total amount managed in the blue (primary) blockchain (in RSK, the total amount is 21M of ethers, smart bitcoins).

A user signs a transaction in the blue blockchain, from his/her account TO bridge account. If a transaction has the blue-green bridge account as the target account, then IT IS AN SPECIAL transaction. For blue machines, that transaction transfer the specified value FROM user blue account, to blue bridge account. For green machines, the same transaction transfer the specified value from green bridge account to user green account.

Then, the user could use his/her green balance in green transactions. But at any moment, he/she could transfer from green user account to green bridge account. That is another special transaction: for green machines, it represents a transfer from user green account to green bridge account; for blue machines, it is a transfer from blue bridge account to blue user account.

Both green and blue user account, have the same address, public and private keys. It is up to the user decision to send a transaction to the green blockchain or to the blue blockchain.

In each secondary blockchain, there is only one bridge account. In the primary blockchain, there is a bridge account FOR EACH secondary blockchain.

A miner that keeps blue and green world state could build the special block. But other nodes could validate only the blue part or the green part. In this way, a secondary blockchain could add scalability to the primary one, and it could have its own fees and process time. A new secondary blockchain could be added when an special operation in primary blockchain creates a new bridge account. Nobody controls these accounts: there are target accounts in all special transactions. Only the sign of the source user account is needed.

In this way, the inter-blockchain transactions are build over the same blocks, you don’t need convoluted atomic swap mechanism, the same blocks execute the TWO transfers in one special transaction.

More about this mechanism, and miner incentive for bi-blockchain blocks, in next posts.

Stay tuned!

Angel “Java” Lopez

Blockchain: Links And Resources (169)

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RSK Bamboo Release V0.4.1 Is Here

Sierra Leone government denies the role of blockchain in its recent election

X-Road Backbone of e-Estonia

Bitcoin Transaction Fees

Bitcoin Argentina Facebook

Ethereum Name Service
(The data in this site is no longer updated)

Essentia Monthly Update

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Angel “Java” Lopez


Blockchain: Links And Resources (168)

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Mad blockchain science: A 100% upgradeable contract

A beginner’s guide to buying an ENS domain

RSK launched in Jaxx. How to get SBTC

Wallet for Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Other Cryptocurrencies

Are we decentralized yet?

Speaking The Same Language In Johannesburg At 8,000 Km From Home. Disruption Is The New Language.

¿Qué define el precio del Bitcoin?

The quantum computers are coming! Is this Bitcoins end?

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Angel “Java” Lopez


Blockchain: Links And Resources (163)

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Programming Blockchain

Ethereum Improvement Proposal: Reward for clients and full nodes validating transactions

Private Key

Open Source JavaScript Client-Side Bitcoin Wallet Generator


Con Blockchain Cambiaremos El Mundo Por Algo Mejor

Micro Loans by the People

Colu’s Digital Wallet

Stay tuned!

Angel “Java” Lopez

Scaling Ethereum/RSK: Multi Blockchains (1)

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I already wrote some proposals in my other post series:

Connecting Blockchains
Multi-Blockchains in Ethereum/RSK
Offchain Transactions in Ethereum/RSK

commenting on using two or more blockchains (homegeneous or heterogeneous), and offchain transactions. They are alternative ways to explore solutions to scalability, with a fresh start and pursuing the simplest path in each idea.

After reviewing the multi-blockchain, now I think a have a simpler path. First, this proposal is about having many HOMOGENEOUS blockchains, Ethereum/RSK-like ones. One is the mainchain, and we could have n additional blockchains:

The main blockchain has the initial ether amount of ether to use. For sake of clarity, let’s start with a main blockchain, the blockchain zero, has an initial stock of 100M ethers (in case of RSK network, it could be the 21M smart bitcoins backed by the 21M bitcoins of the BTC mainnet),

All accounts are the same in all networks: same private, public keys, addresses. So, if you have control of a control in blockchain zero, you can use the same account IN OTHER blockchain.

But the secondary blockchains starts with 0 balance in each account.

The second idea is to have inter-chain transactions, to transfer from one account in source blockchain, to the SAME account in target blockchain:;

An special bridge account is used. There is a bridge account in mainchain FOR EACH secondary chain. So, if you transfer value in blockchain 0, to bridge account corresponding to secondary blockchain 3, THEN a similar transaction will appear in this secondary blockchain, transferring the same amout from the dedicated BRIDGE account. To allow such transfer, each bridge account in SECONDARY blockchain starts with 100M of initial balance,

If there are 10 secondary blockchain, then there are 10 BRIDGE ACCOUNTS in the main blockchain (with initial 0 balance), and ONE BRIDGE ACCOUNT in each secondary blockchain (with 100M inital balance),

You also can send a transaction to a secondary blockchain, transferring value back to the mainchain:

The motivation is to have scalabilty: if the mainchain is overloaded, we can use a secondary blockchain. Also, the different blockchain could have different gas price, and maybe other difference in contract execution cost.

We could use a free graph of blockchains. But limiting the proposal to a hierarchical schema with only one level simplifies the discussion. The transactions between secondary blockchains are not allowed: only main to secondary one are supported. And no generation of new Ether is allowed in the secondary blockchains. These restrictions exist to have a better control of the total amout of value.

I could imagine a secondary blockchain by world region, country, even by vertical market. Or competing blockchains, in gas price and contract execution cost. The client software (that is, a dapp, a mobile application) could simplify the user experience, doing some of these transfer inter-blockchain in automatic.

But, how to reflect one transaction to bridge in one blockchain, to other transaction in the target blockchain? My next post will descibe a simple solution, to be discussed and reviewed. But I think it is a good starting point, to avoid the complications of some atomic swap and alike implementions.

Stay tuned!

Stay tuned!

Angel “Java” Lopez